31 de agosto de 2009

Impacto de Darwin


Publico a seguir o resumo da comunicação que apresentarei no Congresso Internacional sobre o Impacto de Darwin na ciência, na sociedade e na cultura, que terá lugar na Faculdade de Filosofia de Braga, de 10 a 12 de Setembro.



Darwin’s impact on science, society and culture. A XXI th century reassessment

“Was Darwin wrong?” This is a rather strange question to be asked on the cover page of one of the National Geographic magazine issues of 2004. The inside articles strongly supported Darwin and his legacy, but the question expresses some anxiety that seems to be permanently in the air, especially among those who crusade against creationism. We can imagine how some of these crusaders were dismayed when they put their hands on a January issue of this year of the New Scientist magazine and read on its cover page what might be considered the answer to the National Geographic question: “Darwin was wrong”. Daniel Dennett, Richard Dawkins and Jerry Coyne wrote an angry letter to the New Scientist editor protesting against the opportunity he had given to creationists to promote their cause. Why then was Darwin wrong according to the New Scientist? Just because the tree of life is very different from the one he draw in his notebook. This is indeed one of the main points of the reassessment that is being made of Darwin over the last decades. Another one is the crucial concept of natural selection, which, even after the inclusion of genetics in the Modern Synthesis, is still being considered in need of a serious revision. This is what researchers working patiently and peacefully in their laboratories throughout the world are discovering. Not only is the interaction between individuals and their environment more complex than it was though by Darwin, but what happens at the genetic level is being known as much more complex than previously thought by the supporters of the Modern Synthesis. A New Synthesis may be needed, taking into account genomics, bioinformatics, evolutionary genetics, among other domains.


As we know, evolution is not a purely scientific matter. It touches philosophy, ethics, theology, sociology, psychology, aesthetics, linguistics, etc. – practically every domain of human society and culture. I am persuaded that the spirit of crusade of some evolutionists who seems to put everything upside down may be a part of the problem of why Darwin is still arising controversy, rather than being a part of the solution.


The main conflict that exists today in the public domain seems to be the one between evolutionists and creationists. This is really what we read every day in the news. But there seems to be another sort of opposition within the scientific domain: the one between the defensive and, somehow, conservative evolutionists, from the one hand, and, from the other hand, the creative scientists who are less worried about being Darwin’s bodyguards and more interested in uncovering new and unexpected features of the biological world, regardless of whether they agree or disagree with Darwin’s original Origin.


References:

Ayala, F. & Arp, R. (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Facchini, F., Le Sfide della Evoluzione, Milano: Jaca Book, 2008.

Frausto da Silva, J.J.R. & Williams, R. J. P. The Biological Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life, Oxford University Press, USA; 2 edition, 2001.

Haught, J., God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution, Westview Press; Second Edition edition, 2007.

Haught, J., Making Sense of Evolution: Darwin, God, and the Drama of Life, Westminster John Knox Press, 2010.

Hull, David, “Deconstructing Darwin: Evolutionary theory in context”, Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2005) 137-152.

Koonin, E., “Towards a postmodern synthesis of evolutionary biology”, Cell Cycle, 2009 Mar 15; 8 (6): 799-800.

Mayr, E., “Darwin’s impact on modern thought”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 139 (1995:4) 317-325.

Pagel, M, “Natural Selection 150 years on”, Nature 2009 Feb 12; 457 (7231): 808-11.

Rose, M. & Oakley, T., “The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis”, Biology Direct, 2007, 2-30.

Ruse, M., “The Darwinian revolution: rethinking its meaning and significance”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 16 Jun 2009; 106 Suppl 1: 10040-7.

Ruse, M., & Reznick, D., The "Origin" Then and Now: An Interpretive Guide to the "Origin of Species, Princeton University Press, 2009.

Ruse, M., Science and Spirituality: Making Space for Faith in the Age of Science, Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Stix, B., “Darwin’s living legacy”, Scientific American, 300 (2009:1) 38-43.

19 de agosto de 2009

Cristianismo e Evolucionismo em 101 Perguntas e Respostas, de John F. Haught (Gradiva)


Aqui está uma obra acessível a qualquer público, em forma de respostas breves mas fundamentadas e esclarecedoras, sobre as mais diversas questões relacionadas com os desafios que o evolucionismo levanta ao cristianismo. John Haught é professor de Teologia na prestigiada Georgetown University, com vários livros publicados sobre esta questão. As suas respostas exprimem de uma forma objectiva a posição da Igreja Católica numa área tão sensível da cultura contemporânea, e vem a propósito da celebração dos 200 anos do nascimento de Darwin e dos 150 anos da publicação da Origem das Espécies.


De acordo com aquela posição, o evolucionismo não constitui uma ameaça ao cristianismo. Os desafios que o evolucionismo coloca a qualquer religião são, pelo contrário, benéficos, uma vez que toda a religião só tem a beneficiar com qualquer crítica inteligente e informada. A opinião de autores que, como Richard Dawkins, defendem a pretensa incompatibilidade entre evolucionismo e fé cristã não tem, pois, qualquer fundamento. Não basta a Richard Dawkins criticar os autores criacionistas nem os que defendem o desígnio inteligente, uma vez que essas duas reacções ao evolucionismo não são nem as únicas nem as mais convincentes.

Para mais informações consultar www.congressos.facfil.eu


P. Alfredo Dinis,sj